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  • Question 1 - You examine a 72-year-old man who has recently begun bumetanide treatment for worsening...

    Incorrect

    • You examine a 72-year-old man who has recently begun bumetanide treatment for worsening heart failure.Which of these statements about bumetanide is correct?

      Your Answer: It can trigger seizures

      Correct Answer: It has better intestinal absorption than furosemide

      Explanation:

      Bumetanide is a loop diuretic that is used to treat congestive heart failure. It is frequently used in patients who have failed to respond to high doses of furosemide.It has a potency of about 40 times that of furosemide, with a 1 mg dose being roughly equivalent to a 40 mg dose of furosemide.Seizures are not known to be triggered by bumetanide. In fact, it lowers the concentration of neuronal chloride, making GABA’s action more depolarizing, and it’s currently being tested as an antiepileptic in the neonatal period.It takes effect after 1 hour of oral administration, and diuresis takes 6 hours to complete.Bumetanide absorbs much better in the intestine than furosemide. Because it has a higher bioavailability than furosemide, it is commonly used in patients with gut oedema.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular Pharmacology
      • Pharmacology
      30.8
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - Nitrous oxide is associated with which of the following adverse effects: ...

    Incorrect

    • Nitrous oxide is associated with which of the following adverse effects:

      Your Answer: Hypotension

      Correct Answer: Megaloblastic anaemia

      Explanation:

      Exposure to nitrous oxide for prolonged periods, either by continuous or by intermittent administration, may result in megaloblastic anaemia as a result of interference with the action of vitamin B12; neurological toxic effects can occur without preceding overt haematological changes. Depression of white cell formation may also occur.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anaesthesia
      • Pharmacology
      9.8
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - Regarding the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), insulin should initially be given: ...

    Correct

    • Regarding the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), insulin should initially be given:

      Your Answer: At a concentration of 1 unit/mL at a fixed rate of 0.1 units/kg/hour

      Explanation:

      An intravenous insulin infusion should be started at a concentration of 1 unit/mL, at a fixed rate of 0.1 units/kg/hour. Established subcutaneous long-acting insulin therapy should be continued concomitantly. Blood ketone and blood glucose concentrations should be checked hourly and the insulin infusion rate adjusted accordingly. Blood ketone concentration should fall by at least 0.5 mmol/litre/hour and blood glucose concentration should fall by at least 3 mmol/litre/hour.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrine
      • Pharmacology
      32.6
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - Regarding hepatitis C, which of the following statements is INCORRECT: ...

    Correct

    • Regarding hepatitis C, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

      Your Answer: Anti-HCV IgG antibodies are diagnostic of acute infection.

      Explanation:

      Anti-HCV IgG antibodies indicate exposure to hepatitis C but this could be acute, chronic or resolved infection. If the antibody test is positive, HCV RNA should be tested for, which if positive indicates that a person has current infection with active hepatitis C.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Microbiology
      • Pathogens
      29.7
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - Which coronary artery is mostly likely affected if an ECG shows ST segment...

    Incorrect

    • Which coronary artery is mostly likely affected if an ECG shows ST segment elevation in leads II, III and aVF, and ST segment depression in V1-V3?

      Your Answer: Left anterior descending artery

      Correct Answer: Right coronary artery

      Explanation:

      A posterior wall MI occurs when posterior myocardial tissue (now termed inferobasilar), usually supplied by the posterior descending artery — a branch of the right coronary artery in 80% of individuals — acutely loses blood supply due to intracoronary thrombosis in that vessel. This frequently coincides with an inferior wall MI due to the shared blood supply.The ECG findings of an acute posterior wall MI include the following:1. ST segment depression (not elevation) in the septal and anterior precordial leads (V1-V4). This occurs because these ECG leads will see the MI backwards; the leads are placed anteriorly, but the myocardial injury is posterior.2. A R/S wave ratio greater than 1 in leads V1 or V2.3. ST elevation in the posterior leads of a posterior ECG (leads V7-V9). Suspicion for a posterior MI must remain high, especially if inferior ST segment elevation is also present.4. ST segment elevation in the inferior leads (II, III and aVF) if an inferior MI is also present.The following ECG leads determine the location and vessels involved in myocardial infarction:ECG Leads Location Vessel involvedV1-V2 Septal wall Left anterior descendingV3-V4 Anterior wall Left anterior descendingV5-V6 Lateral wall Left circumflex arteryII, III, aVF Inferior wall Right coronary artery (80%) or Left circumflex artery (20%)I, aVL High lateral wall Left circumflex arteryV1, V4R Right ventricle Right coronary arteryV7-V9 Posterior wall Right coronary artery

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Thorax
      15.8
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - Approximately what proportion of lymphocytes are B-cells: ...

    Correct

    • Approximately what proportion of lymphocytes are B-cells:

      Your Answer: 0.2

      Explanation:

      B-cells (20% of lymphocytes) mature in the bone marrow and circulate in the peripheral blood until they undergo recognition of antigen. B-cell immunoglobulin molecules synthesised in the cell are exported and bound to the surface membrane to become the B-cell receptor (BCR) which can recognise and bind to a specific antigen (either free or presented by APCs). The BCR is also important for antigen internalisation, processing and presentation to T helper cells. Most antibody responses require help from antigen-specific T helper cells (although some antigens such as polysaccharide can lead to T-cell independent B-cell antibody production). When the B-cell is activated, the receptor itself is secreted as free soluble immunoglobulin and the B-cell matures into a memory B-cell or a plasma cell (a B-cell in its high-rate immunoglobulin secreting state). Plasma cells are non-motile and are found predominantly in the bone marrow or spleen. Most plasma cells are short-lived (1 – 2 weeks) but some may survive much longer. A proportion of B-cells persist as memory cells, whose increased number and rapid response underlies the augmented secondary response of the adaptive immune system.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Immune Responses
      • Pathology
      8.4
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - Regarding protein digestion, which of the following statements is CORRECT: ...

    Incorrect

    • Regarding protein digestion, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

      Your Answer: The pancreatic proteases, trypsin and chymotrypsin, hydrolyse polypeptides to small peptides and amino acids.

      Correct Answer: Oligopeptides are broken down into small peptides and amino acids by pancreatic carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases located on the brush border.

      Explanation:

      Digestion of dietary protein begins in the stomach where pepsin hydrolyses protein to polypeptides, and continues in the duodenum where pancreatic proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) continue the process of hydrolysis forming oligopeptides. These are further broken down into small peptides and amino acids by pancreatic carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases located on luminal membrane epithelial cells. Free amino acids are absorbed across the apical membrane by secondary active transport coupled with Na+transport into the cell. Amino acids cross the basal membrane into the capillaries by facilitated diffusion.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Gastrointestinal
      • Physiology
      24.6
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - Which of the following is NOT an adverse effect associated with warfarin therapy:...

    Correct

    • Which of the following is NOT an adverse effect associated with warfarin therapy:

      Your Answer: Neutropenia

      Explanation:

      Adverse effects of warfarin:The most common adverse effect of warfarin is bleedingOther common adverse effects of warfarin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, jaundice, hepatic dysfunction, pancreatitis, pyrexia, alopecia, purpura, and rashSkin necrosis is a rare but serious adverse effect of warfarin; treatment with warfarin should be stopped if warfarin related skin necrosis is suspectedCalciphylaxis is a rare, but a very serious condition that causes vascular calcification and cutaneous necrosis

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular
      • Pharmacology
      7.7
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - A 36 year old man who is overweight with a history of gout,...

    Correct

    • A 36 year old man who is overweight with a history of gout, presents to emergency room with an acutely painful big toe which is red, hot and swollen. However, he is apyrexic and otherwise systemically well. He has been diagnosed with acute gout. The most appropriate first line treatment for him is which of the following?

      Your Answer: NSAIDs

      Explanation:

      The first line treatment for acute gout includes NSAIDs like diclofenac, indomethacin or naproxen. In patients in whom NSAIDs are contraindicated, not tolerated or ineffective, colchicine is an alternative. In those who cannot tolerate or who are resistant to NSAIDs and colchicine, oral or parenteral corticosteroids are an effective alternative. In acute monoarticular gout, intra-articular injection of a corticosteroid can be used occasionally. In acute gout. allopurinol is not used in the actual treatment, but its use should be continued during an acute attack if the patient is already established on long term therapy.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Musculoskeletal
      • Pharmacology
      12.2
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - A 58-year-old woman presents with symptoms of increase in weight, proximal muscular weakening...

    Incorrect

    • A 58-year-old woman presents with symptoms of increase in weight, proximal muscular weakening and withering, easy bruising, and acne. You notice that she has a full, plethoric aspect to her face, as well as significant supraclavicular fat pads, when you examine her. She has previously been diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome.Cushing's syndrome is most commonly caused by which of the following?

      Your Answer: Pituitary adenoma

      Correct Answer: Iatrogenic administration of corticosteroids

      Explanation:

      Cushing’s syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs brought on by long-term exposure to high amounts of endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids. Cushing’s syndrome affects about 10-15 persons per million, and it is more common in those who have had a history of obesity, hypertension, or diabetes.Iatrogenic corticosteroid injection is the most prevalent cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Cushing’s illness is the second most prevalent cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Cushing’s disease is distinct from Cushing’s syndrome in that it refers to a single cause of the illness, a pituitary adenoma that secretes high quantities of ACTH, which raises cortisol levels.Cushing’s syndrome has several endogenous sources, including:Cushing’s disease is caused by a pituitary adenoma.Adrenal adenoma Ectopic corticotropin syndrome, e.g. small cell cancer of the lungAdrenal carcinoma is a cancer of the adrenal gland.Hyperplasia of the adrenal glands

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrine Physiology
      • Physiology
      40.8
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - Intracellular [Ca2+] rise in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is mainly as a result of:...

    Incorrect

    • Intracellular [Ca2+] rise in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is mainly as a result of:

      Your Answer: Ca 2+ influx through Na + /Ca 2+ exchange

      Correct Answer: Ca 2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum

      Explanation:

      Although Ca2+entry during the action potential (AP) is essential for contraction, it only accounts for about 25% of the rise in intracellular Ca2+. The rest is released from Ca2+stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). APs travel down invaginations of the sarcolemma called T-tubules, which are close to, but do not touch, the terminal cisternae of the SR. During the AP plateau, Ca2+enters the cell and activates Ca2+sensitive Ca2+release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum allowing stored Ca2+to flood into the cytosol; this is called Ca2+-induced Ca2+release. The amount of Ca2+released is dependent on how much is stored, and on the size of the initial Ca2+influx during the AP.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular
      • Physiology
      19.6
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - Regarding fibrinolytics, which of the following statements is INCORRECT: ...

    Incorrect

    • Regarding fibrinolytics, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

      Your Answer: Tenecteplase has a longer half-life than alteplase allowing for bolus administration.

      Correct Answer: Fibrinolytic drugs act as thrombolytics by directly degrading the fibrin mesh and so breaking up thrombi.

      Explanation:

      Fibrinolytic drugs act as thrombolytics by activating plasminogen to form plasmin, which degrades fibrin and so breaks up thrombi.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular
      • Pharmacology
      77
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - What is the primary function of the mitochondria? ...

    Correct

    • What is the primary function of the mitochondria?

      Your Answer: The production of the cell's supply of chemical energy

      Explanation:

      The mitochondria is responsible for the production of the cell’s supply of chemical energy. It does this by using molecular oxygen, sugar and small fatty acid molecules to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by a process ss known as oxidative phosphorylation. An enzyme called ATP synthase is required. Transcription of ribosomal RNA occurs in the nucleolusProduction of messenger RNA occur in the nucleusProduction of lysosome occurs in the Golgi apparatusThe post-translational processing of newly made proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Basic Cellular Physiology
      • Physiology
      56.5
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - Which family of receptors does the glucagon receptor belong? ...

    Correct

    • Which family of receptors does the glucagon receptor belong?

      Your Answer: G-protein coupled receptors

      Explanation:

      Glucagon binds to class B G-protein coupled receptors and activates adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP intracellularly. This activates protein kinase A. Protein kinase A phosphorylates and activates important enzymes in target cells.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrine Physiology
      • Physiology
      9.1
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - You examine a 43-year-old woman who was referred to you by a friend....

    Incorrect

    • You examine a 43-year-old woman who was referred to you by a friend. She suffers from a variety of medical conditions and takes a variety of medications, including amitriptyline.Which of the following is NOT a contraindication to amitriptyline treatment?

      Your Answer: Heart block

      Correct Answer: Breastfeeding

      Explanation:

      Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is most commonly used to treat depression, but it can also be used to treat anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It inhibits reuptake, raising serotonin and noradrenaline levels while also inhibiting acetylcholine action.TCAs have a number of drawbacks, including:Acute PorphyriaArrhythmiasDuring bipolar disorder’s manic phaseHeart blockAfter a myocardial infarction, there is an immediate recovery period.TCA levels in breast milk are too low to be harmful, and use can be continued while breastfeeding.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • CNS Pharmacology
      • Pharmacology
      26.5
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - Regarding the UK routine childhood immunisation schedule which of the following vaccines is...

    Correct

    • Regarding the UK routine childhood immunisation schedule which of the following vaccines is NOT given at 2 months:

      Your Answer: Meningococcal group C

      Explanation:

      At 2 months the following vaccines are given: Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis BRotavirus gastroenteritisMeningococcal group B

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Immunoglobulins And Vaccines
      • Pharmacology
      14.6
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - A 78-year-old male presents to the Orthopaedic clinic with lower back pain for...

    Correct

    • A 78-year-old male presents to the Orthopaedic clinic with lower back pain for the past month. His past medical history reveals a history of cancer. After examination, you diagnose Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC). Which one of the following cancers is this patient most likely to have had?

      Your Answer: Prostate cancer

      Explanation:

      Compression of the thecal sac causes metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC) due to a Metastatic tumour and its components. It can cause symptoms of limb weakness, sensory disturbances and back pain depending on the extent and level of Compression. The most common source of a tumour causing MSCC is a prostate carcinoma that metastasized to the spinal cord via the vertebral venous plexus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • General Pathology
      • Pathology
      12.4
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - A 25-year-old female arrives at the emergency room with a severe case of asthma....

    Incorrect

    • A 25-year-old female arrives at the emergency room with a severe case of asthma. When she doesn't seem to be improving after initial treatment, you decide to start an aminophylline infusion.From the options below, which is Aminophylline's main mechanism of action? 

      Your Answer: Anti-muscarinic effects

      Correct Answer: Phosphodiesterase inhibition

      Explanation:

      Theophylline and Ethylenediamine are combined in a 2:1 ratio to form Aminophylline. Its solubility is improved by the addition of Ethylenediamine. It has a lower potency and a shorter duration of action than Theophylline.It is used to treat the following conditions: Heart failureIt is used to treat the following conditions: COPDBradycardiasAminophylline has the following properties:Phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases intracellular cAMP and relaxes smooth muscle in the bronchial airways and pulmonary blood vessels.Mast cell stabilization is achieved by using a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist.It has slight positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, increasing cardiac output and decreasing systemic vascular resistance, lowering arterial blood pressure. It has been used historically in the treatment of refractory heart failure and is indicated by the current ALS guidelines as a substitute treatment for bradycardia. The daily oral dose for adults is 900 mg, divided into 2-3 doses. For severe asthma or COPD, a loading dosage of 5 mg/kg over 10-20 minutes is given, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.5 mg/kg/hour. The therapeutic range is small (10-20 microgram/ml), hence assessments of aminophylline plasma concentrations are useful during long-term treatment.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Pharmacology
      • Respiratory Pharmacology
      50.8
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - A 50-year-old woman with painful joints had some blood tests done with her...

    Correct

    • A 50-year-old woman with painful joints had some blood tests done with her GP. The test showed she had anti-double stranded DNA antibodies.Which one of these disorders is most likely to be associated with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies?

      Your Answer: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

      Explanation:

      CREST syndrome is usually associated with anti-centromere antibodies.Primary biliary cirrhosis is associated with anti-mitochondrial antibodies.Sjogren’s syndrome is associated with anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies.Polymyositis is associated with anti-Jo1 antibodies.Anti-double stranded DNA antibodies are highly characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) that target double stranded DNA and are implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • General Pathology
      • Pathology
      36.5
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - An 80-year-old patient with a history of chronic heart failure presents to you....

    Incorrect

    • An 80-year-old patient with a history of chronic heart failure presents to you. Examination reveals widespread oedema.Which statement about plasma oncotic pressure (π p ) is true?

      Your Answer: 70% of π p is generated by immunoglobulins

      Correct Answer: The influence of π p on fluid movement is negligible if the capillary reflection co-efficient is 0.1

      Explanation:

      Plasma oncotic pressure (πp) is typically 25-30 mmHg. 70% of π p is generated by albumin so Hypoalbuminemia will decrease π pThe osmotic power of albumin is enhanced by the Gibbs-Donnan effect.The influence of π p on fluid movement is negligible if the capillary reflection coefficient is 0.1. Another way of saying a vessel is highly permeable is saying the reflection coefficient is close to 0.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular Physiology
      • Physiology
      18.1
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - A 22-year-old presents with acute severe asthma. He takes a drug prescribed by...

    Incorrect

    • A 22-year-old presents with acute severe asthma. He takes a drug prescribed by her GP but cannot recall the name and is receiving regular salbutamol nebulisers. His current potassium level is 2.8 mmol/l.Which drug is least likely to have caused his hypokalaemia?

      Your Answer: Uniphyllin continus

      Correct Answer: Spironolactone

      Explanation:

      Serious hypokalaemia can occur in severe asthma and the effect can be potentiated by concomitant treatment with theophyllines like aminophylline, corticosteroids, thiazide and loop diuretics, and hypoxia. Plasma-potassium concentration should be monitored in severe asthma.Spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic, is not likely to have contributed to patients hypokalaemia.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Pharmacology
      • Respiratory Pharmacology
      27.2
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Superficial fibular nerve palsy results in which of the following clinical features: ...

    Incorrect

    • Superficial fibular nerve palsy results in which of the following clinical features:

      Your Answer: Loss of inversion of the foot

      Correct Answer: Loss of eversion of the foot

      Explanation:

      Damage to the superficial fibular nerve results in loss of eversion of the foot and loss of sensation over the lower anterolateral leg and the dorsum of the foot.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Lower Limb
      11.2
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - Which of the following is a contraindication for aspirin? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following is a contraindication for aspirin?

      Your Answer: Children under 16 years

      Explanation:

      Aspirin contraindications include: hypersensitivity to NSAIDs; asthma, rhinitis, and nasal polyps; and usage in children or teens.There is little evidence of allergic cross-reactivity for salicylates. However, due to similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic activities, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be completely ruled out.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Central Nervous System
      • Pharmacology
      7.6
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - A 32 year old woman presents with episodes of flushing, headaches and palpitations....

    Correct

    • A 32 year old woman presents with episodes of flushing, headaches and palpitations. On examination her blood pressure is significantly elevated. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis:

      Your Answer: Pheochromocytoma

      Explanation:

      Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours which occur in about 0.1% of patients with hypertension. In about 90% of cases they arise from the adrenal medulla. The remaining 10%, which arise from extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue, are termed paragangliomas. Common presenting symptoms include one or more of headache, sweating, pallor and palpitations. Less commonly, patients describe anxiety, panic attacks and pyrexia. Hypertension, whether sustained or episodic, is present in at least 90% of patients. Left untreated phaeochromocytoma can occasionally lead to hypertensive crisis, encephalopathy, hyperglycaemia, pulmonary oedema, cardiac arrhythmias, or even death.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrine
      • Physiology
      6.3
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - Anatomical barriers to infection include all of the following EXCEPT: ...

    Incorrect

    • Anatomical barriers to infection include all of the following EXCEPT:

      Your Answer: Commensal flora in the genitourinary tract

      Correct Answer: Mucociliary escalator in the gastrointestinal tract

      Explanation:

      Anatomical barriers to infection include:tight junctions between cells of the skin and mucosal membranesthe flushing action of tears, saliva and urinethe mucociliary escalator in the respiratory tract (together with the actions of coughing and sneezing)the acidic pH of gastric and vaginal secretionsthe acidic pH of the skin (maintained by lactic acid and fatty acids in sebum)enzymes such as lysozyme found in saliva, sweat and tearspepsin present in the stomachbiological commensal flora formed on the skin and the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts which protect the host by competing with pathogenic bacteria for nutrients and attachment sites and by producing antibacterial substances

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Microbiology
      • Principles
      18.7
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - Regarding bile acids, which of the following statements is INCORRECT: ...

    Incorrect

    • Regarding bile acids, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

      Your Answer: Bile acids have a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic end.

      Correct Answer: The main primary bile acids are deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid.

      Explanation:

      Bile acids have a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic end and in aqueous solution, bile salts orient themselves around droplets of lipid forming micelles to keep the lipid droplets dispersed. The principal primary bile acids are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. They are made more soluble by conjugation with taurine or glycine in the liver. Of the bile acids excreted into the intestine, about 95% are reabsorbed into the portal circulation by active transport mechanisms in the distal ileum and recycled by the liver.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Gastrointestinal
      • Physiology
      232.1
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - Oedema can occur as a result of any of the following WITH THE...

    Incorrect

    • Oedema can occur as a result of any of the following WITH THE EXCEPTION OF:

      Your Answer: Increased venous pressure

      Correct Answer: Increased interstitial hydrostatic pressure

      Explanation:

      Oedema is defined as a palpable swelling produced by the expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. A variety of clinical conditions are associated with the development of oedema, including heart failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. The development of oedema requires an alteration in capillary dynamics in a direction that favours an increase in net filtration and also inadequate removal of the additional filtered fluid by lymphatic drainage. Oedema may form in response to an elevation in capillary hydraulic pressure (which increases the delta hydraulic pressure) or increased capillary permeability, or it can be due to disruption of the endothelial glycocalyx, decreased interstitial compliance, a lower plasma oncotic pressure (which reduces the delta oncotic pressure), or a combination of these changes. Oedema can also be induced by lymphatic obstruction since the fluid that is normally filtered is not returned to the systemic circulation.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular
      • Physiology
      45.3
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - What proportion of peripheral blood leukocytes are monocytes? ...

    Incorrect

    • What proportion of peripheral blood leukocytes are monocytes?

      Your Answer: < 1%

      Correct Answer: 5 - 10%

      Explanation:

      Monocytes account for around 5 to 10% of peripheral white cells. Monocytes in peripheral blood are generally bigger than other leukocytes and feature a large central oval or indented nucleus with clumped chromatin. The abundant cytoplasm staining blue and containing numerous fine vacuoles gives the appearance of ground glass. Cytoplasmic granules are another type of granule. Monocytes evolve from the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor to become monoblasts, promonocytes, monocytes, and tissue macrophages (in increasing order of maturity). Monocytes only stay in the bone marrow for a short time before exiting to circulate in the bloodstream for 20-40 hours before becoming macrophages.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Immune Responses
      • Pathology
      7.8
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - Which of the following clinical features is most suggestive of a lesion of...

    Correct

    • Which of the following clinical features is most suggestive of a lesion of the frontal lobe:

      Your Answer: Conjugate eye deviation towards the side of the lesion

      Explanation:

      Conjugate eye deviation towards the side of the lesion is seen in damage to the frontal eye field of the frontal lobe. Homonymous hemianopia is typically a result of damage to the occipital lobe (or of the optic radiation passing through the parietal and temporal lobes). Auditory agnosia may been seen in a lesion of the temporal lobe. Hemispatial neglect may be seen in a lesion of the parietal lobe. Receptive dysphasia is seen in damage to Wernicke’s area, in the temporal lobe.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Central Nervous System
      7
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - You are giving a presentation on the immune system as part of your...

    Incorrect

    • You are giving a presentation on the immune system as part of your peer-to-peer teaching sessions. Yu are currently discussing phagocytes. Macrophages are derived from which of the following cells:

      Your Answer: Natural killer cells

      Correct Answer: Monocytes

      Explanation:

      Monocytes spend only a short time in the marrow and, after circulating for 20-40 hours, leave the blood to enter the tissues where they become macrophages. Macrophages form the reticuloendothelial system in the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The lifespan of macrophages may be as long as several months or even years. In tissues the macrophages become self-replicating without replenishment from the blood. They assume specific functions in different tissues e.g. dendritic cells which are involved in antigen presentation to T-cells. Macrophages may be activated by cytokines such as IFN-gamma, contact with complement or direct contact with the target cell through leucocyte adhesion molecules.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Immune Responses
      • Pathology
      7.1
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Cardiovascular Pharmacology (0/1) 0%
Pharmacology (5/11) 45%
Anaesthesia (0/1) 0%
Endocrine (2/2) 100%
Microbiology (1/2) 50%
Pathogens (1/1) 100%
Anatomy (1/3) 33%
Thorax (0/1) 0%
Immune Responses (1/3) 33%
Pathology (3/5) 60%
Gastrointestinal (0/2) 0%
Physiology (3/9) 33%
Cardiovascular (1/4) 25%
Musculoskeletal (1/1) 100%
Endocrine Physiology (1/2) 50%
Basic Cellular Physiology (1/1) 100%
CNS Pharmacology (0/1) 0%
Immunoglobulins And Vaccines (1/1) 100%
General Pathology (2/2) 100%
Respiratory Pharmacology (0/2) 0%
Cardiovascular Physiology (0/1) 0%
Lower Limb (0/1) 0%
Central Nervous System (2/2) 100%
Principles (0/1) 0%
Passmed