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  • Question 1 - Which is the most accurate statement regarding scabies? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which is the most accurate statement regarding scabies?

      Your Answer: Because the mite can jump, infection rates are high in households and nurseries

      Correct Answer: Positive mineral oil mount is diagnostic

      Explanation:

      The diagnosis of scabies can often be made clinically in patients with a pruritic rash and characteristic linear burrows. Definitive testing relies on the identification of mites or their eggs, eggshell fragments, or scybala. This is best undertaken by placing a drop of mineral oil directly over the burrow on the skin and then superficially scraping longitudinally and laterally across the skin with a scalpel blade. (Avoid causing bleeding.) Scraping 15 or more burrows often produces only 1 or 2 eggs or mites, except in a case of crusted scabies, in which many mites will be present. The sample is placed on a microscope slide and examined under low and high power. Potassium hydroxide should not be used, since it can dissolve mite pellets. Failure to find mites is common and does not rule out the diagnosis of scabies.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Dermatology
      21.2
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - A 13-year-old male presented in the OPD with bilateral ankle oedema. On examination,...

    Incorrect

    • A 13-year-old male presented in the OPD with bilateral ankle oedema. On examination, his BP was normal. Urinalysis showed a high degree of proteinuria was present. Which of the following is the most probable diagnosis in this patient?

      Your Answer: Nephrotic syndrome

      Correct Answer: Minimal change GN

      Explanation:

      Minimal change disease is a type of glomerulonephritis that mostly affects younger children. Proteinuria is present which leads to body oedema. But in these patients blood pressure is normal.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Renal
      32.4
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - A strict gluten-free diet is a dietary treatment for coeliac disease.Which one of...

    Incorrect

    • A strict gluten-free diet is a dietary treatment for coeliac disease.Which one of the following statements concerning the gluten-free diet is correct?

      Your Answer: Oats can be included freely in the gluten-free diet

      Correct Answer: Buckwheat is suitable in a gluten-free diet

      Explanation:

      Buckwheat is not wheat. It’s a seed rather than a grain, which means it’s gluten-free and safe for people with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. It is an excellent source of fibre and nutrients.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Nutrition
      35.7
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - Absence of which of the following milestones warrants further assessment in a 15-month-old...

    Incorrect

    • Absence of which of the following milestones warrants further assessment in a 15-month-old child?

      Your Answer: Build a tower of 3 bricks

      Correct Answer: Stand holding onto furniture

      Explanation:

      By 15 months, it’s common for many toddlers to:- say three to five words.- understand and follow simple commands.- point to one body part.- walk alone and begin to run.- climb on furniture.- make marks with a crayon.- imitate activities, such as housework.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Child Development
      25.4
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - Which of the given electrolyte imbalances is a clinical feature of adrenal insufficiency?...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the given electrolyte imbalances is a clinical feature of adrenal insufficiency?

      Your Answer: Hypokalaemia

      Correct Answer: Hyponatraemia

      Explanation:

      Adrenal insufficiency is a serious medical condition that leads to inadequate secretion of corticosteroids. The consequences of this deficiency are numerous electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, which include hyponatremia, hyperkalaemia, hypercalcemia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic alkalosis, and dehydration.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      15.2
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - Which of the conditions, mentioned below, result in a continuous murmur? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the conditions, mentioned below, result in a continuous murmur?

      Your Answer: Ventricular septal defect

      Correct Answer: Blalock- Taussig shunt

      Explanation:

      Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt is a surgical procedure done to increase pulmonary blood flow in cases like pulmonary atresia and results in a continuous murmur.The type of murmur which is heard during the systole and remains continuous till the second heart sound is known as a continuous murmur. This murmur is often intense and considered rough. It can also be accompanied by quivering. There are numerous causes of a continuous murmur that differ depending on the location and components of this murmur. It is caused by the shunting of blood from a high-pressure circulation to a low-pressure circulation. Pathological causes of a continuous murmur include patent ductus arteriosus, aortopulmonary window, AV malformation, coarctation of aorta, any acquired trauma, and iatrogenic cause like interventional or surgical procedures.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular
      19.7
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - Which of these developmental milestones would be advanced for a 3-year-old? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of these developmental milestones would be advanced for a 3-year-old?

      Your Answer: Balancing on one foot

      Correct Answer: Doing up buttons unaided

      Explanation:

      3-year-old milestones:Social and Emotional:- Copies adults and friends – Shows affection for friends without prompting – Takes turns in games – Shows concern for crying friend – Understands the idea of mineť and hisť or hersť – Shows a wide range of emotions – Separates easily from mom and dad – May get upset with major changes in routine- Dresses and undresses self Language/Communication- Follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps – Can name most familiar things – Understands words like in,ť on,ť and underť – Says first name, age, and sex- Names a friend – Says words like I,ť me,ť we,ť and youť and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats) – Talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the time – Carries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentencesCognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)- Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving parts – Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people – Does puzzles with 3 or 4 pieces – Understands what twoť means – Copies a circle with a pencil or crayon – Turns book pages one at a time – Builds towers of more than 6 blocks – Screws and unscrews jar lids or turns the door handleMovement/Physical Development- Climbs well – Runs easily – Pedals a tricycle (3-wheel bike) – Walks up and downstairs, one foot on each stepDoing up buttons is a skill more usually seen in 5-year-olds.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Child Development
      14.2
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - A 11 year girl presents to the A&E department with a full thickness...

    Incorrect

    • A 11 year girl presents to the A&E department with a full thickness burn to her right arm, which she got when a firework that she was playing with exploded. Which statement is not characteristic of the situation?

      Your Answer: Blanching does not occur under pressure

      Correct Answer: The burn area is extremely painful until skin grafted

      Explanation:

      Answer: The burn area is extremely painful until skin graftedThird-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons. The burn site appears white or charred. There is no sensation in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed. These are not normally painful until after skin grafting is done since the nerve endings have been destroyed.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Emergency Medicine
      21
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - A 4 month old child, presenting with lower UTI has been treated with...

    Incorrect

    • A 4 month old child, presenting with lower UTI has been treated with Trimethoprim but there has been no improvement after 48 hours. What will be the next step in the management of this patient?

      Your Answer: Extend treatment

      Correct Answer: Micturating cystourethrogram

      Explanation:

      A micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) is one type of imaging test also called a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). The MCUG can check whether the flow of urine from the child’s bladder is being blocked, or whether it goes up the wrong way. It can help diagnose certain conditions, including vesicoureteral reflux and posterior urethral valves.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Genitourinary
      31.9
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - When assessing language development, which of the following is typical of a 2...

    Incorrect

    • When assessing language development, which of the following is typical of a 2 1/2-year-old child?

      Your Answer: Ask 'why' questions

      Correct Answer: Ask 'where' questions

      Explanation:

      Language/Communication milestones of 2 years old:Points to things or pictures when they are named Knows names of familiar people and body parts Says sentences with 2 to 4 words Follows simple instructions Repeats words overheard in conversation Points to things in a book

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Child Development
      12.4
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - A 16-month-old girl with eczema is on the following treatment regimen: Oilatum in...

    Correct

    • A 16-month-old girl with eczema is on the following treatment regimen: Oilatum in baths; Baby' shampoo and soap and E45 cream to affected areas four times daily. Additionally, the mother uses 'non-biological' washing powder.The child often scratches the affected areas, sometimes even in her sleep. On examination, her skin is erythematous, excoriated, and lichenified over the knees, thighs, and flexor surfaces of the elbows.Which of the following would be the most appropriate next step in the management of this child?

      Your Answer: Use E45 cream instead of soap; advise using a greasier emollient and try an antihistamine at night

      Explanation:

      The most appropriate next step in the management of this patient would be to use E45 cream instead of soap. Using a greasier emollient and an antihistamine at night can also be trialled..Management of eczema:Treatment of eczema can be problematic, and thus, parents should be advised regarding simple, everyday measures that can relieve the symptoms. These include:- Using non-biological washing powder- Wearing cotton clothes as opposed to artificial fibres- Avoiding the use of soaps or shampoos and using E45 Cream as an alternative.- Additional use of bath oil (e.g. Oilatum) is found to be beneficial.- Regular emollient use is recommended and essential. The aim is to keep the skin from feeling dry at any time of day. Sedating with older types of antihistamines at night does not help to reduce itching, but when used in large doses, they occasionally provide a sedative effect which may improve sleep. If all these measures are in use, but the eczema is still not controlled, the escalation of treatment would be appropriate. Note: There is no evidence for the benefit of topical antibiotics.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Dermatology
      64.1
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - An 8-year-old boy is presented with arthritis, cough and non-blanching purpura. His coagulation...

    Correct

    • An 8-year-old boy is presented with arthritis, cough and non-blanching purpura. His coagulation profile is normal. His CBC: Hb 11.8 TLC 7.2*10^9 Plt 286*10^9. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

      Explanation:

      The best answer is Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP). This patient has a characteristic rash and the labs are consistent with this diagnosis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Cardiovascular
      42
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - A 5 year old girl presented with short stature, primary amenorrhea, puffy arms...

    Correct

    • A 5 year old girl presented with short stature, primary amenorrhea, puffy arms and a webbed neck. The most likely diagnosis will be?

      Your Answer: Turner's syndrome

      Explanation:

      Turner’s syndrome is characterised by a webbed neck, short stature, primary amenorrhea and cardiac, renal and muscular defects. Gene analysis shows a single X chromosome in the patients. Downs syndrome has certain cognitive and physical abnormalities, whereas in Klinefelter syndrome there are widely spaced nipples, long arms and infertility and it only occurs in men.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Genetics And Dysmorphology
      7
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - A 6-year-old boy was admitted with a burn that looks third or fourth...

    Correct

    • A 6-year-old boy was admitted with a burn that looks third or fourth degree upon inspection. He has not stopped crying. What is the most appropriate next step?

      Your Answer: IV fluid start

      Explanation:

      The boy needs re-hydration due to his full thickness burn so IV fluids is the next most appropriate step. The greatest loss of plasma occurs in the first 12 hours after burn injury. The plasma loss then slowly decreases during the second 12 hours of the post-burn phase, although extensive leakage can continue for up to three days (Ahrns, 2004). Optimal fluid replacement during this period is essential to ensure cardiac output and renal and tissue perfusion. Usually, 36 hours post-burn, capillary permeability returns to normal and fluid is drawn back into the circulation. Burns of more than 15% of surface body area in adults and of over 10% in children warrant formal resuscitation.The Parkland formula for the total fluid requirement in 24 hours is as follows:4ml x TBSA (%) x body weight (kg);50% given in first eight hours;50% given in next 16 hours.Children receive maintenance fluid in addition, at an hourly rate of:4ml/kg for the first 10kg of body weight plus;2ml/kg for the second 10kg of body weight plus;1ml/kg for >20kg of body weight.End pointUrine -adults: 0.5-1.0 ml/kg/hour;Urine -children: 1.0-1.5ml/kg/hour.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Emergency Medicine
      18.3
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - What is the most likely condition a new born infant is likely to...

    Incorrect

    • What is the most likely condition a new born infant is likely to suffer from, if he/she was born with incomplete fusion of the embryonic endocardial cushions?

      Your Answer: Transposition of the great arteries

      Correct Answer: An atrioventricular septal defect

      Explanation:

      The endocardial cushions in the heart are the mesenchymal tissue that make up the part of the atrioventricular valves, atrial septum and ventricular septum. An incomplete fusion of these mesenchymal cells can cause an atrioventricular septal defect. The terms endocardial cushion defect, atrioventricular septal defect and common atrioventricular canal defect can be used interchangeably with one another.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Embryology
      41
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - A 2-year-old child is diagnosed with a left sided cataract after an ophthalmoscopic...

    Incorrect

    • A 2-year-old child is diagnosed with a left sided cataract after an ophthalmoscopic exam. Which of the following is the least likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: Blunt trauma to the eye

      Correct Answer: Hyperthyroidism

      Explanation:

      Hyperthyroidism is the least likely cause of cataract development as all of the other mentioned options can lead to eye problems. Asthma and crohn’s can lead to steroid induced cataract formation, while trauma to the eye can cause traumatic cataracts to develop afterwards. JIA often leads to uveitis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Ophthalmology
      41.6
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - Which of the following conditions is most commonly seen in PANDAS (Paediatric Autoimmune...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following conditions is most commonly seen in PANDAS (Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections)?

      Your Answer: Psychosis

      Correct Answer: Obsessive compulsive disorder

      Explanation:

      A child may be diagnosed with PANDAS when:- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tic disorder, or both suddenly appear following a streptococcal (strep) infection, such as strep throat or scarlet fever.- The symptoms of OCD or tic symptoms suddenly become worse following a strep infection.The symptoms are usually dramatic, happen overnight and out of the blue,ť and can include motor or vocal tics or both and obsessions, compulsions, or both. In addition to these symptoms, children may become moody or irritable, experience anxiety attacks, or show concerns about separating from parents or loved ones.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Neurology And Neurodisability
      7.7
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - A 12-year-old female presented with a bleeding nose. On examination by the ENT...

    Incorrect

    • A 12-year-old female presented with a bleeding nose. On examination by the ENT surgeon, it was noticed that the bleeding was coming from the anterior part of the nose and the bleeding point was clearly visualised. Which of the following options is the most suitable choice in this case?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Cautery

      Explanation:

      In the case of anterior nasal bleeds, when the bleeding point is clearly visualised the best management step is cautery, either electrical or chemical.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • ENT
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - A 13-year-old girl is complaining of severe acne. She does not have her...

    Incorrect

    • A 13-year-old girl is complaining of severe acne. She does not have her period yet and her BMI is 37. She has high insulin levels on her lab results. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

      Explanation:

      The best answer is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), supported by amenorrhea, obesity and acne. High insulin levels are indicative of PCOS and exclude Cushing syndrome (as this is associated with low insulin levels).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Genitourinary
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - Which of the following is NOT a gonadal or sexual differentiation disorder? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following is NOT a gonadal or sexual differentiation disorder?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: XXX (Triple X Syndrome)

      Explanation:

      The correct answer is triple X syndrome with a genotype of XXX and an almost normal female phenotype. The extra X chromosome is inactive. The final phenotype of an individual is determined after normal sexual and gonadal differentiation, a process that involves several genes located on chromosomes X and Y. Disorders of sexual differentiation result in cases of ambiguous genitalia and are caused by a number of genetic abnormalities. Among these disorders is the turner syndrome with a genotype of 45X0, characterized by gonadal dysgenesis and ovarian failure. DAX-1 gene mutation leads to congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which results in virilization of female external genitalia. Campomelic dysplasia results from mutation of the SOX-9 gene, leading to 46XY sex reversal. Danys-Drash syndrome is characterized by disordered sexual development in affected males due to the mutated WT-1 gene, which also causes Wilm’s tumour.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Genetics And Dysmorphology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - Which of the following is the most likely cause of microcephaly in an...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following is the most likely cause of microcephaly in an asymptomatic 3-year-old child whose head circumference is on the 3rd centile? Note that his height and weight are in the 75th centile.

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Congenital rubella syndrome

      Explanation:

      The most likely cause of microcephaly in an asymptomatic 3-year-old child is congenital rubella syndrome.Microcephaly is defined as head circumference > two standard deviations below the mean.The causes of microcephaly include:- Genetic disorders: Down syndrome, Edward syndrome, Patau syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome.- Infective: Meningitis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, rubella, varicella, HIVand Zika.- Acquired causes: Severe brain malformations, neurodegenerative diseases, hypoxic-ischemic injury, infarction, antenatal exposure to drugs, alcohol, and other toxins. Severe malnutrition and uncontrolled phenylketonuria in the mother are other causes of microcephaly in children.- Craniosynostosis- Neurometabolic disorders- Early non-accidental trauma- Fanconi anaemia- Other causes include: Familial and nonfamilial nonsyndromic microcephalyMost children with microcephaly have one or several associated symptoms:- Developmental delay- Seizures- Visual abnormalities- Short stature

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Neurology And Neurodisability
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Which of the following exhibits low genetic penetrance? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following exhibits low genetic penetrance?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Gaucher disease

      Explanation:

      Penetrance is defined as the percentage of individuals having a particular mutation or genotype who exhibit clinical signs or phenotype of the associated disorder or genotype.Gaucher disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Genetics And Dysmorphology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - A study shows that of children with asthma, 25% have a first-degree relative...

    Incorrect

    • A study shows that of children with asthma, 25% have a first-degree relative with asthma compared with only 10% of a sample of children without asthma. Which of the following is true?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: To interpret the results we need to know how the samples were selected

      Explanation:

      Observational studies fall under the category of analytic study designs and are further sub-classified as observational or experimental study designs. The goal of analytic studies is to identify and evaluate causes or risk factors of diseases or health-related events. The differentiating characteristic between observational and experimental study designs is that in the latter, the presence or absence of undergoing an intervention defines the groups. By contrast, in an observational study, the investigator does not intervene and rather simply observesť and assesses the strength of the relationship between an exposure and disease variable.Three types of observational studies include cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies. Case-control and cohort studies offer specific advantages by measuring disease occurrence and its association with an exposure by offering a temporal dimension (i.e. prospective or retrospective study design). Cross-sectional studies, also known as prevalence studies, examine the data on disease and exposure at one particular time point. Because the temporal relationship between disease occurrence and exposure cannot be established, cross-sectional studies cannot assess the cause and effect relationshipDisadvantage of Cohort study is Susceptible to selection bias.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Epidemiology And Statistics
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - A term baby was born following a placental abruption. There was no respiratory...

    Incorrect

    • A term baby was born following a placental abruption. There was no respiratory effort and an undetectable heart rate initially. Baby is now 20 min old and has been intubated with regular ventilation breaths. Heart rate came up to 110/min following two rounds of chest compressions. Baby appears very pale. No drugs have been given. Oxygen saturations are currently 85% measured on the right hand despite FiO2 1.0. A venous cord gas shows pH 6.89, CO2 -8, BE -14, Hb 8. What is the next most appropriate step?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Umbilical venous catheter (UVC) placement

      Explanation:

      Umbilical vein catheterization utilizes the exposed umbilical stump in a neonate as a site for emergency central venous access up to 14 days old. Umbilical vein catheterization can provide a safe and effective route for intravenous delivery of medications and fluids during resuscitation.The indication for umbilical vein catheterization is when there is a need for IV access in a neonate for resuscitation, transfusions, or short-term venous access when otherwise unobtainable.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Neonatology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - Which of the given medical conditions does NOT produce adrenal insufficiency? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the given medical conditions does NOT produce adrenal insufficiency?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Hypoparathyroidism

      Explanation:

      Adrenal insufficiency is a serious medical condition that leads to inadequate secretion of corticosteroids. There are three main types of adrenal insufficiency: primary, secondary, and tertiary, based on the location of the abnormality. Primary adrenal insufficiency is caused by any pathology located inside the adrenal glands. The most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency is Addison’s disease, which is an autoimmune condition. Adrenoleukodystrophy is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease that also causes primary adrenal insufficiency. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by any pathological impairment of the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus. The important causes of secondary adrenal insufficiency include iatrogenic (steroid use), pituitary tumours like craniopharyngioma, and conditions leading to panhypopituitarism like Sheehan’s syndrome. Tertiary adrenal insufficiency is caused by the deficiency of the corticotropin-releasing hormone. Hypoparathyroidism does not cause adrenal insufficiency.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - A 12-year-old boy presented with jaundice and fatigue for the last two weeks....

    Incorrect

    • A 12-year-old boy presented with jaundice and fatigue for the last two weeks. He complains of intermittent pain in his epigastrium. He is otherwise healthy with no history of vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite or weight. History revealed that he has had fatigue all his life leading to him missing out on sports at regular intervals at school. His mother reports that he had two episodes of hepatitis at ages 5 and 7 years. There is no family history of jaundice. He has no significant travel history.On physical examination, yellow sclera were observed. Additionally, on abdominal examination, the splenic tip was palpable at 3 cm with some tenderness of the right upper quadrant. He was found to have mild tachycardia with normal blood pressure and no fever.Blood results:- Hb: 12.6 g/dl- MCV: 104 fL- MCHC: 38 g/dL- WBC Count: 10 x 109/L- Reticulocyte count: 148 x 109/L (Normal Range 20-100 x 109/L)- Bilirubin: 34 ÎĽmol/L- LDH: 600 lÎĽ/L (Normal Range 230-450 lÎĽ/l)- Direct Coomb's test: NegativeAbdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged spleen measuring 15 cmWhat is the most probable diagnosis?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Hereditary spherocytosis

      Explanation:

      The most probable diagnosis based on the scenario provided above is hereditary spherocytosis.While jaundice and abdominal pain might make you think of hepatitis or cholecystitis in the first instance, the lack of fever suggests otherwise. The apyrexial presentation is against acute cholecystitis, and the past medical history reveals a chronic type of fatigue and two previous episodes of hepatitis. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the child has contracted infective hepatitis twice and now a third time! The most common cause of hepatitis in childhood is hepatitis A, however the lack of travel history to endemic areas makes this less likely. Hepatitis A is usually a mild, self-limiting disease that never presents with chronic symptoms. The chronicity of his fatigue and the blood results lead towards a haematological diagnosis. This is further substantiated by his low haemoglobin levels, high MCV and high reticulocyte count. Chronic haemolytic anaemia is the most likely cause, and the negative Coombs excludes autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Thus, leaving us with the answer as hereditary spherocytosis.Hereditary spherocytosis is a disorder that makes the cytoskeleton of red cells more fragile and therefore leads to red cell death and splenomegaly. Gallstones are a result of this red cell destruction and increased haem metabolism.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Haematology And Oncology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - A 3-year-old boy was brought at the hospital by his mother due to...

    Incorrect

    • A 3-year-old boy was brought at the hospital by his mother due to sudden onset pyrexia with emesis and bilateral facial swelling. Upon history taking, she mentions that she brought her son to the GP who suggested analgesics for his bilateral parotid pain, 2 days ago. What would be the next step of your management?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Reassurance

      Explanation:

      The history is suggestive of mumps. Mumps is a viral disease with initial signs and symptoms including fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and feeling tired. This is then usually followed by painful swelling of one or both parotid salivary glands. Mumps is a self-limiting condition treated only for symptomatic relief. As he currently is taking analgesics for pain relief, one should only offer reassurance.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - A 16-year-old schoolboy presents for a regular medical check-up. He complains of a...

    Incorrect

    • A 16-year-old schoolboy presents for a regular medical check-up. He complains of a red patch of skin on his chest, that is surrounded by an area of skin scaling. This was followed by the development of oval macules over the rest of his trunk, arms and thighs three days later. he has just returned to school for the start of Spring term. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Pityriasis rosea

      Explanation:

      Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute exanthem of uncertain aetiology. Viral and bacterial causes have been sought, but convincing answers have not yet been found. Pityriasis rosea typically affects children and young adults. It is characterized by an initial herald patch, followed by the development of a diffuse papulosquamous rash. The herald patch often is misdiagnosed as eczema. Pityriasis rosea is difficult to identify until the appearance of characteristic smaller secondary lesions that follow Langer’s lines (cleavage lines). Several medications can cause a rash similar to pityriasis rosea, and several diseases, including secondary syphilis, are included in the differential diagnosis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Dermatology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - Children with eczema herpeticum exhibit which of the following features? ...

    Incorrect

    • Children with eczema herpeticum exhibit which of the following features?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Atopic children have reduced immunity to the herpes simplex virus

      Explanation:

      Eczema herpeticum is a form of Kaposi varicelliform eruption, characterized by extensive vesicular skin eruptions that arise from a pre-existing skin condition, usually atopic dermatitis. The most common pathogen is the herpes simplex virus type 1, which has a higher propensity of attacking the epidermis already damaged by atopic dermatitis. The incubation period of the illness is 5-14 days. The eruption is initially small, monomorphic, dome-shaped papulovesicles that rupture to form tiny punched-out ulcers. It is diagnosed by taking viral swabs for culture.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Dermatology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - Which of the given pathologies follow the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the given pathologies follow the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Myotonic dystrophy

      Explanation:

      The autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance involves the presence of at least one of the defected copies of the gene in an individual to develop a specific diseased condition. Examples of this mode of inheritance include myotonic dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, achondroplasia, etc. Still’s disease, also called juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is not a heritable disease. Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disease., while spinocerebellar ataxia and Friedreich’s ataxia are caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Genetics And Dysmorphology
      0
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Dermatology (1/2) 50%
Renal (0/1) 0%
Nutrition (0/1) 0%
Child Development (0/3) 0%
Endocrinology (0/1) 0%
Cardiovascular (1/2) 50%
Emergency Medicine (1/2) 50%
Genitourinary (0/1) 0%
Genetics And Dysmorphology (1/1) 100%
Embryology (0/1) 0%
Ophthalmology (0/1) 0%
Neurology And Neurodisability (0/1) 0%
Passmed